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What are 5 Facts about Springs?

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What are 5 Facts about Technical Springs?


Technical springs are essential in various industries, and crucial in mechanical devices and systems. These springs come in different shapes, sizes, and materials, each designed to fulfill specific purposes. This article will explore five important facts about technical springs, highlighting their significance and functionality.

1. Definition and Types of Technical Springs

Technical springs are mechanical devices typically made of elastic materials that store and release energy when subjected to external forces or loads. These springs absorb shocks, maintain pressure, and provide support in various applications. There are several types of technical springs, including:

Compression Springs

Compression springs compress under a load and expand when the load is removed. They are commonly used in automotive suspension systems, industrial machinery, and household appliances. Some key points about compression springs include:

  • They are designed to resist compression forces and provide resistance against linear compressive loads.
  • Compression springs are typically made of high-carbon or stainless steel for their strength and durability.
  • The coils of compression springs are tightly wound together, allowing them to store and release energy efficiently.
  • These springs are available in various shapes, such as cylindrical, conical, and barrel-shaped, to suit different applications.

Extension Springs

Extension springs extend under a load and retract when the load is released. They are frequently found in garage doors, trampolines, and mechanical devices. Here are some details about extension springs:

  • They are designed to resist tensile forces and provide resistance against linear tensile loads.
  • Extension springs are commonly made of high-carbon or stainless steel for their strength and corrosion resistance.
  • The coils of extension springs are widely spaced, allowing them to elongate and store potential energy.
  • These springs often have hooks or loops at the ends to facilitate attachment to other components.

Torsion Springs

Torsion springs exert rotational force when twisted or torqued. They are widely used in clothespins, door hinges, and various mechanical systems requiring rotational energy. Consider the following points about torsion springs:

  • They are designed to resist torsional forces and provide torque or rotational energy.
  • Torsion springs are typically made of high-carbon or alloy steel for their strength and torsional resistance.
  • These springs have a spiral shape, with the coils tightly wound together, allowing them to store and release rotational energy.
  • Torsion springs often have legs or arms at the ends, which are attached to other components to transmit the rotational force.

Wire Forms

Wire forms are springs that do not fit the traditional compression, extension, or torsion categories. They are often customized for unique applications, such as medical devices or specialized machinery. Here are some key points about wire forms:

  • They are designed to provide specific shapes or configurations rather than linear or rotational forces.
  • Wire forms can be made from various materials, including steel, stainless steel, or non-ferrous metals.
  • These springs often support or secure components like clips, hooks, or brackets.
  • Wire forms can be manufactured by bending, coiling, or welding depending on the desired shape and functionality.

2. Materials Used in Technical Springs

Technical springs are manufactured using various materials based on the application’s specific requirements. The choice of material affects the spring’s durability, flexibility, and ability to withstand environmental conditions. Some commonly used materials for technical springs include:


High-carbon steel is widely used in technical springs due to its excellent strength, flexibility, and resistance to fatigue. It is often used in heavy-duty applications where durability is essential. Consider the following details about steel springs:

  • High-carbon steel springs have a high load-bearing capacity, making them suitable for applications with heavy loads or high forces.
  • Steel springs can be manufactured with different wire diameters and coil configurations to achieve the desired stiffness or spring rate.
  • These springs are commonly used in automotive suspension systems, industrial machinery, and heavy-duty equipment.

Stainless Steel

Stainless steel is known for its corrosion resistance, making it suitable for applications where exposure to moisture or chemicals is a concern. It is commonly used in medical devices, food processing equipment, and marine applications. Here are some key points about stainless steel springs:

  • Stainless steel springs are highly resistant to rust and corrosion, ensuring their longevity and performance in harsh environments.
  • They are often used in applications where cleanliness and hygiene are critical, such as medical or food processing equipment.
  • Stainless steel springs can withstand a wide range of temperatures, making them suitable for both high and low-temperature applications.

Alloy Steel

Alloy steel springs offer enhanced strength and performance compared to regular steel springs. They are often used in demanding applications that require high load-bearing capabilities. Consider the following details about alloy steel springs:

  • Alloy steel springs are alloyed with other elements, such as chromium, vanadium, or silicon, to improve their mechanical properties.
  • These springs have higher tensile strength, yield strength, and fatigue resistance than regular steel springs.
  • Alloy steel springs are commonly used in automotive suspensions, heavy machinery, and high-performance applications where durability and reliability are crucial.

Non-Ferrous Metals

Springs made from non-ferrous metals like bronze or phosphor bronze are commonly used in electrical connectors, electronic devices, and sensitive equipment due to their excellent conductivity and resistance to corrosion. Here are some key points about non-ferrous metal springs:

  • Non-ferrous metal springs have excellent electrical conductivity, making them suitable for applications where electrical contact is essential.
  • They have high resistance to corrosion and oxidation, ensuring their longevity and performance in various environments.
  • Non-ferrous metal springs are often used in electronics, telecommunications, and precision instruments where reliability and conductivity are critical.

3. Importance of Proper Spring Design and Engineering

Design and engineering play a crucial role in the performance and longevity of technical springs. Properly designed springs ensure optimal functionality, efficiency, and safety in various applications. Some key considerations during the design and engineering process include:

Load Requirements

Understanding the load requirements is essential to determine the appropriate type and size of the spring needed. This includes considering factors such as weight, pressure, and anticipated forces. Some important points to consider about load requirements are:

  • Determining the maximum load or force to which the spring will be subjected helps select the right material and design specifications.
  • Analyzing the dynamic or static nature of the load is important to choose the appropriate type of spring, whether it be compression, extension, torsion, or a wire form.
  • Considering the load’s direction and magnitude helps calculate the required spring rate and deflection for optimal performance.

Spring Rate and Deflection

The spring rate, or stiffness or constant, determines how much force is required to compress or extend the spring by a certain distance. Calculating the spring rate and deflection ensures the spring is suitable for the intended application. Here are some key details about spring rate and deflection:

  • The spring rate is typically measured in force per unit length units, such as pounds per inch or newtons per millimeter.
  • The deflection of the spring refers to the distance it compresses or extends under a specific load.
  • Properly calculating the spring rate and deflection helps ensure the spring can handle the required loads and provide the desired functionality.

Material Selection

Choosing the right material for the spring is critical to ensure it can withstand the anticipated loads, environmental conditions, and potential wear and tear. Factors such as temperature range, corrosion resistance, and fatigue strength must be considered. Consider the following points about material selection:

  • Analyzing the application’s operating conditions, such as temperature, humidity, and exposure to chemicals or corrosive substances, helps in selecting a material with suitable properties.
  • Considering the spring’s expected lifespan and potential fatigue cycles aids in choosing a material with the necessary fatigue strength and durability.
  • Evaluating the cost-effectiveness and availability of the material is also important in designing an optimized spring solution.

Safety Factors

Incorporating appropriate safety factors in the design helps prevent failure or deformation under extreme conditions, ensuring the spring operates within its desired parameters and has a longer lifespan. Here are some important details about safety factors:

  • Safety factors are typically expressed as a ratio between the maximum working load or stress and the spring’s rated load or stress.
  • The safety factor accounts for uncertainties in the load, material properties, and other factors that could affect the spring’s performance.
  • Higher safety factors are often used in critical applications or those subjected to severe operating conditions to ensure reliability and prevent catastrophic failures.

4. Applications of Technical Springs

Technical springs find application in various industries and sectors, contributing to the smooth functioning of countless devices and systems. Some common applications of technical springs include:

Automotive Industry

Technical springs are widely used in automobiles, including suspension systems, clutch mechanisms, engine valves, and seat belts. Here are some key applications in the automotive industry:

  • Suspension springs, such as a coil or leaf springs, provide support and shock absorption in vehicle suspension systems, improving ride comfort and stability.
  • Clutch springs are used in manual transmissions and help engage or disengage the clutch mechanism smoothly.
  • Valve springs ensure proper opening and closing of engine valves, optimizing engine performance and efficiency.
  • Seat belt retractors use extension springs to retract the seat belt smoothly and securely.

Manufacturing and Machinery

Technical springs are essential in manufacturing processes and machinery, assisting in assembly, vibration control, and precision movement. Consider the following applications in the manufacturing and machinery sector:

  • Spring-loaded connectors or fasteners help secure components during assembly, ensuring proper alignment and preventing loosening or misalignment.
  • Anti-vibration springs or shock absorbers dampen vibrations in machinery, reducing noise, preventing damage, and improving overall stability.
  • Precision equipment or measuring instruments often use springs for accurate movement or actuate mechanical components.

Aerospace and Defense

Technical springs are vital in aircraft components, defense equipment, and space exploration, where reliability and performance are paramount. Here are some notable applications in the aerospace and defense sector:

  • Aircraft landing gear systems use various springs, such as compression or extension springs, to absorb and dampen the impact forces during landing and takeoff.
  • Defense equipment, including firearms and artillery, utilize springs for recoil, magazine feeding, and trigger mechanisms.
  • Springs are also used in satellites and spacecraft for deployment mechanisms, attitude control, and antenna positioning.

Medical Devices

Precision springs are used in medical devices such as pacemakers, insulin pumps, surgical instruments, and prosthetics. Consider the following applications in the medical field:

  • Pacemakers utilize miniature springs to provide the necessary force for electrode contact and ensure reliable electrical conductivity.
  • Insulin pumps use springs to control insulin delivery, ensuring accurate dosing and smooth operation.
  • Surgical instruments, such as forceps or retractors, rely on springs for precise movement, grip, and tension control.
  • Prosthetic limbs often incorporate springs to mimic natural movement, providing support and facilitating mobility.


Technical springs are used in electronic devices, connectors, switches, and battery compartments, ensuring proper contact and functionality. Here are some notable applications in the electronics industry:

  • Connectors like USB or HDMI utilize springs to ensure proper electrical contact and secure connection.
  • Switches like push-button or toggle switches rely on springs for tactile feedback and reliable switching action.
  • Battery compartments in electronic devices, such as remote controls or cameras, often use springs to maintain battery contact and ensure a reliable power supply.

Household Appliances

Technical springs are found in various household appliances, including washing machines, refrigerators, and door hinges, providing support and smooth operation. Consider the following applications in household appliances:

  • Washing machines utilize suspension springs to support the drum and dampen vibrations during the spin cycle.
  • Refrigerator door hinges use springs to ensure proper sealing, smooth opening and closing, and to maintain the desired pressure.
  • Gas springs are commonly used in the oven or dishwasher doors to control opening and closing movements.

5. Spring Maintenance and Lifespan

Regular maintenance and care are essential for technical springs to ensure optimal performance and longevity. Here are some key maintenance practices:


Regularly inspect the springs for wear, excessive corrosion, or deformation. Replace any damaged or worn-out springs promptly to prevent potential failures. Consider the following inspection practices:

  • Check for any visible signs of wear, such as cracks, breaks, or spring shape distortion.
  • Inspect the spring’s surface for signs of corrosion or rust, especially in high-moisture or corrosive environments.
  • Verify that the spring’s dimensions, such as length and diameter, are within the specified tolerances.


Apply appropriate lubricants to reduce friction and wear between spring coils. This helps maintain the spring’s efficiency and longevity. Consider the following lubrication practices:

  • Use lubricants specifically designed for spring applications, considering factors such as temperature range and compatibility with the spring material.
  • Apply the lubricant evenly along.


  1. What are the types of technical springs?
  • Compression Springs
  • Extension Springs
  • Torsion Springs
  • Wire Forms
  1. What are the commonly used materials for technical springs?
  • Steel
  • Stainless Steel
  • Alloy Steel
  • Non-Ferrous Metals
  1. What are the important considerations in spring design and engineering?
  • Load Requirements
  • Spring Rate and Deflection
  • Material Selection
  • Safety Factors
  1. What are some common applications of technical springs?
  • Automotive Industry
  • Manufacturing and Machinery
  • Aerospace and Defense
  • Medical Devices
  • Electronics
  • Household Appliances

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